Back in the days of the Old West, and Old East for that matter, what time it was varied from town to town, got worse state to state. Before 1883 city folk used a well known clock, in the town square say, or the clock in the jeweler's shop window. Most cities and towns used some form of solar time, resetting the "official" time piece every morning or evening. The time of day was very localized. It varied from town to town. Those who lived in the country would reset that mantle clock, or the Grandfather clock everyday at noon when the sun was straight up. Or if you had pigs, they would keep you on track. Back in those days they kept the Friday afternoon 2 p.m. managers meetings to a minimum. I don't know how stagecoaches maintained their schedules, though maybe due to weather, horrible roads and such they didn't ever have a 3:10 to Yuma. (I know 3:10 to Yuma is about a train.) The history of standard time in the United States began today, or in October, or November 1883. The railroad corporations in the U.S. and Canada got together and instituted a standard of time in four different time zones (or maybe five). Besides the hot foot Casey Jones, how else you gonna make the trains run on time? The old distinct private universes of time vanished when the railroads collectively decided to place our country under a scheme of four 'standard time zones', I should add these huge corporations, the first of their kind, did so without an act of congress, President or the courts. At first standardized time was not universally embraced. Eventually people started seeing advantages in the new system. Businesses really like it. Those forum members residing in Arizona and Indiana are welcome to weigh in on why your states (or parts of them) sometimes tick to a different clock. The impact of the railroads in this era can't be overstated. They grew into huge corporations and gave raise to wealth never known. The railroads took our country places we've never been and we didn't get a return ticket. They remade the economic, political, social and cultural landscape of the United States. They created enormous wealth in new business enterprises and the economic integration of the nation bringing distant farms, ranches, mines, workshops and factories into a single market. It was a revolution. The railroads marked the "incorporation of America" with all the advantages that implies, as well as all the stuff we hate. Next time you fly into LAX and your wrist watch is wrong, thank the railroad. Next time you listen to 'Time Has Come Today', thank the Chambers Brothers.